The article the British Chiropractic Association hopes you will not read


Science-based Medicine carried this article yesterday, and several other blogs have joined in.  Below is the article Simon Singh wrote for which he is being sued for libel by the professional association for British chiropractors.  It’s a good cause, so I’ll stretch it another little while.

Science-based Medicine introduced the article with this:

Last year Simon Singh wrote a piece for the Guardian that was critical of the modern practice of chiropractic. The core of his complaint was that chiropractors provide services and make claims that are not adequately backed by evidence – they are not evidence-based practitioners. In response to his criticism the British Chiropractic Association (BCA) sued Simon personally for libel. They refused offers to publish a rebuttal to his criticism, or to provide the evidence Simon said was lacking. After they were further criticized for this, the BCA eventually produced an anemic list of studies purported to support the questionable treatments, but really just demonstrating the truth of Simon’s criticism (as I discuss at length here).

In England suing for libel is an effective strategy for silencing critics. The burden of proof is on the one accused (guilty until proven innnocent) and the costs are ruinous. Simon has persisted, however, at great personal expense.

This is an issue of vital importance to science-based medicine. A very necessary feature of science is public debate and criticism – absolute transparency.This is also not an isolated incident. Some in the alternative medicine community are attempting to assert that criticism is unprofessional, and they have used accusations of both unprofessionalism and libel as a method of silencing criticism of their claims and practices. This has happened to David Colquhoun and Ben Goldacre, and others less prominent but who have communicated to me directly attempts at silencing their criticism.

This behavior is intolerable and is itself unprofessional, an assault on academic freedom and free speech, and anathema to science as science is dependent upon open and vigorous critical debate.

What those who will attempt to silence their critics through this type of bullying must understand is that such attempts will only result in the magnification of the criticism by several orders of magnitude. That is why we are reproducing Simon Singh’s original article (with a couple of minor alterations) on this site and many others. Enjoy.

Here it is:

Beware the spinal trap

Some practitioners claim it is a cure-all but research suggests chiropractic therapy can be lethal

Simon Singh
The Guardian, Original version published Saturday April 19 2008
Edited version published July 29, 2009

You might be surprised to know that the founder of chiropractic therapy, Daniel David Palmer, wrote that “99% of all diseases are caused by displaced vertebrae”. In the 1860s, Palmer began to develop his theory that the spine was involved in almost every illness because the spinal cord connects the brain to the rest of the body. Therefore any misalignment could cause a problem in distant parts of the body.

In fact, Palmer’s first chiropractic intervention supposedly cured a man who had been profoundly deaf for 17 years. His second treatment was equally strange, because he claimed that he treated a patient with heart trouble by correcting a displaced vertebra.

You might think that modern chiropractors restrict themselves to treating back problems, but in fact some still possess quite wacky ideas. The fundamentalists argue that they can cure anything, including helping treat children with colic, sleeping and feeding problems, frequent ear infections, asthma and prolonged crying – even though there is not a jot of evidence.

I can confidently label these assertions as utter nonsense because I have co-authored a book about alternative medicine with the world’s first professor of complementary medicine, Edzard Ernst. He learned chiropractic techniques himself and used them as a doctor. This is when he began to see the need for some critical evaluation. Among other projects, he examined the evidence from 70 trials exploring the benefits of chiropractic therapy in conditions unrelated to the back. He found no evidence to suggest that chiropractors could treat any such conditions.

But what about chiropractic in the context of treating back problems? Manipulating the spine can cure some problems, but results are mixed. To be fair, conventional approaches, such as physiotherapy, also struggle to treat back problems with any consistency. Nevertheless, conventional therapy is still preferable because of the serious dangers associated with chiropractic.

In 2001, a systematic review of five studies revealed that roughly half of all chiropractic patients experience temporary adverse effects, such as pain, numbness, stiffness, dizziness and headaches. These are relatively minor effects, but the frequency is very high, and this has to be weighed against the limited benefit offered by chiropractors.

More worryingly, the hallmark technique of the chiropractor, known as high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust, carries much more significant risks. This involves pushing joints beyond their natural range of motion by applying a short, sharp force. Although this is a safe procedure for most patients, others can suffer dislocations and fractures.

Worse still, manipulation of the neck can damage the vertebral arteries, which supply blood to the brain. So-called vertebral dissection can ultimately cut off the blood supply, which in turn can lead to a stroke and even death. Because there is usually a delay between the vertebral dissection and the blockage of blood to the brain, the link between chiropractic and strokes went unnoticed for many years. Recently, however, it has been possible to identify cases where spinal manipulation has certainly been the cause of vertebral dissection.

Laurie Mathiason was a 20-year-old Canadian waitress who visited a chiropractor 21 times between 1997 and 1998 to relieve her low-back pain. On her penultimate visit she complained of stiffness in her neck. That evening she began dropping plates at the restaurant, so she returned to the chiropractor. As the chiropractor manipulated her neck, Mathiason began to cry, her eyes started to roll, she foamed at the mouth and her body began to convulse. She was rushed to hospital, slipped into a coma and died three days later. At the inquest, the coroner declared: “Laurie died of a ruptured vertebral artery, which occurred in association with a chiropractic manipulation of the neck.”

This case is not unique. In Canada alone there have been several other women who have died after receiving chiropractic therapy, and Edzard Ernst has identified about 700 cases of serious complications among the medical literature. This should be a major concern for health officials, particularly as under-reporting will mean that the actual number of cases is much higher.

If spinal manipulation were a drug with such serious adverse effects and so little demonstrable benefit, then it would almost certainly have been taken off the market.


Simon Singh is a science writer in London and the co-author, with Edzard Ernst, of Trick or Treatment? Alternative Medicine on Trial. This is an edited version of an article published in The Guardian for which Singh is being personally sued for libel by the British Chiropractic Association.

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2 Responses to The article the British Chiropractic Association hopes you will not read

  1. Ed Darrell says:

    I’ll forward your comments to Mr. Singh.

    If you’ve been so successful, why not do the scientific studies required to get a scientific footing?

    Like

  2. Simon, I’m writing concerning your article about the dangers of chiropractic therapy. Well in a sentence if chiropractic is unscientific then so be it. I have been a practicing chiropractor for for almost 30 years and have delivered more than a quarter million chiropractic manipulations or adjustments and have been UNsuccessful on every attempt to paralyze or kill any of my patients. I have over 100 chiropractic friends (conservative estimate) and they too have been UNsuccessful in paralyzing or killing any of their patients. If we add up the numbers (about 250,000 adjustments per doctor x 100 doctors =25,000,000 adjustments without serious incident). Those are fairly impressive stats even if embellished by my lack of scientific method. Could medical doctors make the same claim? If that doesn’t convince you of the safety of chiropractic (which I’m sure it hasn’t.) then perhaps the cost of malpractice insurance premiums will sway you. My malpractice insurance per year is less than $700 for $1/$3 million coverage (that means $1 million per incident and $3 million combined per year.) So for protection to make sure I can pay for all those wrongful death claims that you say are soon coming to me and all my colleagues it costs me under $2/day. If I were an insurance company and I knew chiropractic adjustments were hurting and killing people I guess I wouldn’t provide them with such inexpensive coverage or any coverage at all for that matter would I? Unless you think the insurance companies are stupid and like to gamble? No? Well then if you follow the money you will see why we aren’t considered very good even though common sense dictates that were are the best and safest. The reason that there aren’t so many scientific(?) articles supporting chiropractic is simple. Chiropractic as a whole is privately funded and thus has only two(2) full time researchers but a single drug company (which will remain anonymous) at Harvard alone has more 6000 full time researchers. Just follow the money and you will see where the problems are. All the really smart people go into medicine right? But how many people really would need a brain or orthopaedic surgery if they just took care of themselves? If nothing else chiropractors subscribe to a healthier chemical free lifestyle and isn’t that better than waiting for a miracle cure for lung cancer? We have that miracle, STOP SMOKING! Afterall if you consider the cost to all of us for preventable illnesses (maybe 50% of all illnesses) and all the medical insurances, mistakes, failures, and aggravations is it possible that those unscientific chiropractors might just come out on top? Want to find out more? Go to http://www.MtPleasantFamilyChiropractic.com.

    Like

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