Found on Twitter:
May 6, 2014, is the 77th anniversary of the Hindenberg tragedy. Docking at its station in New Jersey, after crossing the Atlantic, a spark ignited the aluminum-based paint on the airship, and the entire craft exploded into flame.
35 people died on the airship, and one on the ground — did you know a few survived? The Associated Press interviewed a man who was 8-years old that day, and a passenger on the airship.
Werner Doehner, an 8-year-old passenger aboard the Hindenburg, saw chairs fall across the dining room door his father had walked through moments before the disaster. He would never see his father alive again.
“Just instantly, the whole place was on fire,” said Doehner, of Parachute, Colo., who is the last surviving passenger. “My mother threw me out the window. She threw my brother out. Then she threw me, but I hit something and bounced back. She caught me and threw me the second time out. My sister was just too heavy for her. My mother jumped out and fractured her pelvis. Regardless of that, she managed to walk.”
The disaster erroneously condemned hydrogen in the public’s mind. Despite widespread use of hydrogen gas for cooking and some transportation during World War II (including in the U.S.), use of hydrogen as a fuel beyond that has always faced the hurdle of the “Hindenberg Syndrome,” the fear that the gas would explode.
Is the fear justified? Fact is that gasoline is much more volatile, more explosive, and generally more dangerous, than hydrogen. We move, and use, millions of gallons of gasoline in the U.S. every day, worldwide very hour, bound by laws enforcing strict liability, in relative safety. Most people don’t think about the explosive power of the few gallons of gasoline stored under the rear seat of their car, where the children ride.
What other technologies do we fear irrationally? What technologies do we irrationally fail to fear so much as we should?
This is mostly an encore post.
One of Thomas Merton’s typewriters sits on display at the Thomas Merton Center at Bellarmine University, in Louisville, Kentucky.
Who? You remember, the guy who wrote The Seven Storey Mountain.
Thomas Merton, O.C.S.O. (January 31, 1915 – December 10, 1968) was an American Catholic writer and mystic. A Trappist monk of the Abbey of Gethsemani, Kentucky, he was a poet, social activist, and student of comparative religion. In 1949, he was ordained to the priesthood and given the name Father Louis.
Merton wrote more than 70 books, mostly on spirituality, social justice and a quiet pacifism, as well as scores of essays and reviews, including his best-selling autobiography, The Seven Storey Mountain (1948), which sent scores of World War II veterans, students, and even teenagers flocking to monasteries across the US, and was also featured in National Review‘s list of the 100 best non-fiction books of the century. Merton was a keen proponent of interfaith understanding. He pioneered dialogue with prominent Asian spiritual figures, including the Dalai Lama, the Japanese writer D.T. Suzuki, and the Vietnamese monk Thich Nhat Hanh. Merton has also been the subject of several biographies.
It’s a French typewriter, by Royal, with French characters available for use.
Yes, that famous Rosling guy with the bouncing bubble, animated charts from TEDS.
Why not panic? Rosling’s group, Gapminder, explains:
The world might not be as bad as you might believe!
Don’t Panic – is a one-hour long documentary produced by Wingspan Productions and broadcasted on BBC on the 7th of November 2013.
The visualizations are based on original graphics and stories by Gapminder and the underlaying data-sources are listed here.
Hans’s — “All time favorite graph”, is an animating bubble chart which you can interact with online here and download offline here.
Hans presents some results from our UK Ignorance Survey described here.
Director & Producer; Dan Hillman, Executive Producer: Archie Baron. ©Wingspan Productions for BBC, 2013. A DVD version of this film is available to order from Wingspan Productions.
Alas, we can’t embed the film. You must view the video — for free — at the Gapminder site, here.
Photo found at the blog of the good Robert Messenger at OzTypewriter:
I can find no identifying information on the photo. It looks, to me, to have been taken in the 1950s, judging by Pete’s hair and no beard.
It’s an electric typewriter, I think, seeing a cord coming out of the back. Probably a Royal (I’m not great at identifying typewriters, you know). Was this taken at Pete’s home in Beacon? Perhaps.
Can you help in identifying the time and place of this photo?
- Pete Seeger articles and mentions here at Millard Fillmore’s Bathtub
- “Postcards from Old Pete,” at Melville House Books
- “Pete Seeger and the Lion King,” at OzTypewriter - heckuva story about the original author of “Mbube,” which became “Wimoweh, which became “The Lion Sleeps Tonight,” and attempts to recover some of the royalties due the family of the composer, Solomon Linda
- Yes! magazine photo essay of Pete at home, from 2007 (some very nice, very interesting photos; no typewriters that I’ve found)
Between Christmas and New Year’s Day, here at Millard Fillmore’s Bathtub we celebrate a variety of historically holy days. December 31, by tradition, is Bright Idea Day, the anniversary of the day Thomas Edison demonstrated for the public a working light bulb in 1879.
Here it is, the invention that stole sleep from our grasp, made clubbing possible, and launched 50,000 cartoons about ideas:
The light bulb. It’s an incandescent bulb.
It wasn’t the first bulb. Edison a few months earlier devised a bulb that worked with a platinum filament. Platinum was too expensive for mass production, though — and Edison wanted mass production. So, with the cadre of great assistants at his Menlo Park laboratories, he struggled to find a good, inexpensive filament that would provide adequate life for the bulb. By late December 1879 they had settled on carbon filament.
Edison invited investors and the public to see the bulb demonstrated, on December 31, 1879.
Edison’s successful bulb indicated changes in science, technology, invention, intellectual property and finance well beyond its use of electricity. For example:
- Edison’s Menlo Park, New Jersey, offices and laboratory were financed with earlier successful inventions. It was a hive of inventive activity aimed to make practical inventions from advances in science. Edison was all about selling inventions and rights to manufacture devices. He always had an eye on the profit potential. His improvements on the telegraph would found his laboratory he thought, and he expected to sell the device to Western Union for $5,000 to $7,000. Instead of offering it to them at a price, however, he asked Western Union to bid on it. They bid $10,000, which Edison gratefully accepted, along with the lesson that he might do better letting the marketplace establish the price for his inventions. Other inventive labs followed Edison’s example, such as the famous Bell Labs, but few equalled his success, or had as much fun doing it. (Economics teachers: Need an example of the marketplace in action?)
- While Edison had some financial weight to invest in the quest for a workable electric light, he also got financial support, $30,000 worth, from some of the finance giants of the day, including J. P. Morgan and the Vanderbilts who established the Edison Light Company.
- Edison didn’t invent the light bulb — but his improvements on it made it commercial. “In addressing the question ‘Who invented the incandescent lamp?’ historians Robert Friedel and Paul Israel list 22 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Joseph Wilson Swan and Thomas Edison. They conclude that Edison’s version was able to outstrip the others because of a combination of three factors: an effective incandescent material, a higher vacuum than others were able to achieve (by use of the Sprengel pump) and a high resistance lamp that made power distribution from a centralized source economically viable.”
- Edison’s financial and business leadership acumen is partly attested to by the continuance of his organizations, today — General Electric, one of the world’s most successful companies over the past 40 years, traces its origins to Edison.
Look around yourself this evening, and you can find a score of ways that Edison’s invention and its descendants affect your life. One of the more musing effects is in cartooning, however. Today a glowing lightbulb is universally accepted as a nonverbal symbol for ideas and inventions. (See Mark Parisi’s series of lightbulb cartoons, “Off the Mark.”)
Even with modern, electricity-saving bulbs, the cartoon shorthand hangs on, as in this Mitra Farmand cartoon.
Or see this wonderful animation, a video advertisement for United Airlines, by Joanna Quinn for Fallon — almost every frame has the symbolic lightbulb in it.
- New Netherlands Institute biography of Edison
- A timeline noting Edison’s many inventions
- Light bulbs and other electric lamps, and color
- Earlier post at Millard Fillmore’s Bathtub on the granting of the patent for Edison’s invention
- The 100+ year-old lightbulb in Livermore, California
- Forth Worth’s 100-year-old lightbulb (If there are two lightbulbs more than 100 years old and still burning, are there others?)
- Wait a minute! What about that lightbulb he demonstrated on October 21? Story here. See the difference?
- Oh, yeah — it’s a good enough idea, we can celebrate it often: January 27 is the anniversary of the granting of the patent
Even More, in 2012 and 2013:
- On This Day In 1879, Edison Demonstrates The Incandescent Light Bulb (rememberinghistory.wordpress.com)
- OSHA Declares Light Bulbs A Workplace Hazard (smartsign.com)
- Incandescent lightbulbs face final lights out (kitv.com)
- Historical AC DC debate between Edison and Tesla (faizankhalid.wordpress.com)
- The 75-Watt Bulb Has a Dim Future (businessweek.com)
- In January, the government will finally kill Thomas Edison’s light bulb (rare.us)
- Era of incandescent bulbs near end (triblive.com)
- Many popular light bulbs will disappear in 2014 (stltoday.com)
Before we completely forget about October 29, and events that occurred on that day of the calendar, let’s pause for a moment to remember the introduction of the ballpoint pen. We do this because the ballpoint pen was such a symbol of modernity after World War II. And we do this because hand writing utensils seem to be losing fashion, as does handwriting itself.
Let’s not lose all the history. I wrote this first back in 2006, commemorating the ballpoint.
2006 was the 100th anniversary of the Mont Blanc company, the company that made fountain pens a luxury item even while fountain pens were still the state of the art of pens.
October 29 is the 68st anniversary (according to CBS “Sunday Morning”) or 69th anniversary (see Wikipedia) of the introduction of the ballpoint pen in the U.S., at Gimbel’s Department Store, in New York City. (I go with 1945.) It was based on a design devised in 1938 by a journalist named László Bíró. Biro produced his pen in Europe, and then in Argentina. But in the U.S., a businessman named Reynolds set up the Reynolds International Pen Company and rushed to market in the U.S. a pen based on several Biros he had purchased in Buenos Aires.
On October 29, 1945 (or 1946), you could purchase a “Reynolds Rocket” at Gimbel’s for $12.50 — about $130 today, adjusted for inflation.
Today I continue my search for a ballpoint or rollerball that will write in green, reliably, for grading. (Turns out red marks panic a lot of kids; some write in blue, so blue won’t work, nor will black; green is a great grading color.)
I use a Waterman Phileas ballpoint, a Cross Radiance fountain pen, a Cross Radiance rollerball (Radiance was discontinued about a year ago), a full set of Cross Century writing implements, a lot of Sanford Uniballs in various colors, and a lot of Pentel Hybrid K-178 gel-rollers, and some Pilot G-2 gel pens (though the green ink versions are unreliable). I also keep several Marvy calligraphic pens for signing things with a flourish. I have a box of $0.10 ballpoints in a briefcase for students who fail to bring a writing utensil. (Since 2006, I’ve added a Cross pencil similar to the old Radiance design, and another Cross ballpoint in black (the Waterman is blue); the most reliable green-ink pen I’ve found is a Pilot Bravo, but they are tough to find these days in any color, and green is even togher; plus, they are bold-line instruments.)
Jefferson probably wrote the Declaration of Independence with quills he trimmed himself. Lincoln probably used a form of fountain pen to write the Gettysburg Address, but he had no writing utensil with him when he was assassinated at Ford’s Theatre on April 14, 1865. President Johnson made famous the practice of using many pens to sign important documents, such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964; he made gifts of the pens to people who supported the legislation and worked to get it made into law.
And, who said it? Brace yourself.
Beneath the rule of men entirely great,
The pen is mightier than the sword.
Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Baron Lytton, wrote that, in Richelieu, act II, scene ii, a play he wrote in 1839.
Yes, he is the same Bulwer-Lytton who wrote the novel Paul Clifford in 1840, whose opening line is, “It was a dark and stormy night.”
The first ballpoint pen was sold in the United States on October 29, 1945, a few weeks after the surrender of Japan that ended completely the hostilities of World War II. It was a good year, and a good time to be writing. Still is, today.
- Art / Held at BallPoint (purecomplex.com)
- What is a Pen? (swainrach.wordpress.com)
- Doctor saves life with knife, ballpoint pen (prehospitalmed.com)
- U.S. Census Bureau Daily Feature for October 29 (sys-con.com)
- Ideafinder, the ballpoint pen
- “Only the store is gone,” story about Gimbel’s, in the New York Times, David K. Randall, February 19, 2006
- “The Write Stuff,” story of the first sales of ballpoint pens from the U.S. Census Bureau (!)