December 30, 1924, Hubble Day: Bigger universe than you can imagine


Edwin Hubble

December 30, 1924, Edwin Hubble announced the results of his observations of distant objects in space.

In 1924, he announced the discovery of a Cepheid, or variable star, in the Andromeda Nebulae. Since the work of Henrietta Leavitt had made it possible to calculate the distance to Cepheids, he calculated that this Cepheid was much further away than anyone had thought and that therefore the nebulae was not a gaseous cloud inside our galaxy, like so many nebulae, but in fact, a galaxy of stars just like the Milky Way. Only much further away. Until now, people believed that the only thing existing outside the Milky Way were the Magellanic Clouds. The Universe was much bigger than had been previously presumed.

Later Hubble noted that the universe demonstrates a “red-shift phenomenon.” The universe is expanding. This led to the idea of an initial expansion event, and the theory eventually known as Big Bang.

Hubble’s life offered several surprises, and firsts:

Hubble was a tall, elegant, athletic, man who at age 30 had an undergraduate degree in astronomy and mathematics, a legal degree as a Rhodes scholar, followed by a PhD in astronomy. He was an attorney in Kentucky (joined its bar in 1913), and had served in WWI, rising to the rank of major. He was bored with law and decided to go back to his studies in astronomy.

In 1919 he began to work at Mt. Wilson Observatory in California, where he would work for the rest of his life. . . .
Hubble wanted to classify the galaxies according to their content, distance, shape, and brightness patterns, and in his observations he made another momentous discovery: By observing redshifts in the light wavelengths emitted by the galaxies, he saw that galaxies were moving away from each other at a rate constant to the distance between them (Hubble’s Law). The further away they were, the faster they receded. This led to the calculation of the point where the expansion began, and confirmation of the big bang theory. Hubble calculated it to be about 2 billion years ago, but more recent estimates have revised that to 20 billion years ago.

An active anti-fascist, Hubble wanted to joined the armed forces again during World War II, but was convinced he could contribute more as a scientist on the homefront. When the 200-inch telescope was completed on Mt. Palomar, Hubble was given the honor of first use. He died in 1953.

“Equipped with his five senses, man explores the universe around him and calls the adventure Science.”

That news on December 30, 1924, didn’t make the first page of the New York Times. The Times carried a small note on February 25, 1925, that Hubble won a $1,000 prize from the American Academy for the Advancement of Science.

Update, December 31: CBS’s Sunday Morning has an “Almanac” feature weekly; Hubble was featured on December 30. Unfortunately CBS has not posted the video. However, I did find a description of Hubble’s work on YouTube — in true, irritating internet fashion, stripped of citations. The video is below. If you know details — who made the video, where good copies might be available — please note it in comments.

Update:  See the 2009, improved  Hubble Day post here.

See the 2010 post here.

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15 Responses to December 30, 1924, Hubble Day: Bigger universe than you can imagine

  1. […] 2008 for Hubble Day, Wired picked up on the story (with a gracious link to 2007′s post here at the Bathtub). Wired includes several links to even more information, a good source of […]

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  2. [...] 2008 for Hubble Day, Wired picked up on the story (with a gracious link to 2007′s post here at the Bathtub). Wired includes several links to even more information, a good source of [...]

    Like

  3. [...] news did not make a front page of The New York Times. The paper did notice a following Feb. 25 that Hubble and a open health researcher separate a $1,000 prize ($12,500 in today’s money) from a American Association for a Advancement of [...]

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  4. [...] did not make the front page of The New York Times. The paper did notice the following Feb. 25 that Hubble and a public health researcher split a $1,000 prize ($12,500 in today’s money) from the American Association for the Advancement of [...]

    Like

  5. [...] did not make the front page of The New York Times. The paper did notice the following Feb. 25 that Hubble and a public health researcher split a $1,000 prize ($12,500 in today’s money) from the American Association for the Advancement of [...]

    Like

  6. [...] 2008 for Hubble Day, Wired picked up on the story (with a gracious link to 2007′s post here at the Bathtub). Wired includes several links to even more information, a good source of [...]

    Like

  7. [...] did not make the front page of The New York Times. The paper did notice the following Feb. 25 that Hubble and a public health researcher split a $1,000 prize ($12,000 in today’s money) from the American Academy for the Advancement of [...]

    Like

  8. [...] 2008 for Hubble Day, Wired picked up on the story (with a gracious link to 2007′s post here at the Bathtub). Wired includes several links to even more information, a good source of [...]

    Like

  9. [...] 2008  for Hubble Day, Wired picked up on the story (with a gracious link to 2007′s post here at the Bathtub). Wired includes several links to even more information, a good source of [...]

    Like

  10. [...] year for Hubble Day, Wired picked up on the story (with a gracious link to 2007’s post here at the Bathtub). Wired includes several links to even more information, a good source of [...]

    Like

  11. [...] an encore post.  This year for Hubble Day, Wired picked up on the story (with a gracious link to last year’s post here at the Bathtub).  Wired includes several links to even more [...]

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  12. [...] though it was, the news did not make the front page of The New York Times. The paper did notice the following Feb. 25 that Hubble and a public health [...]

    [Editor's Note: I'm sorry. The link listed was to a spam blog. That blog, yKvz, had copied, without attribution, the story at Wired. Read it at Wired, and support their advertisers.]

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  13. dorigo says:

    Hi ed,

    thank you for the story. I had read something about Hubble’s life but I was happy to refresh my mind about it.

    Cheers,
    T.

    Like

  14. Ed Darrell says:

    Unfortunately CBS doesn’t make that video available that I can find. That little “Almanac” feature is a gem — I regret that CBS hides it so well. I hope someone will let me know if the video shows up anywhere on the internet.

    Like

  15. Rodney Roe says:

    This story was carried on Sunday Morning. They had a nice picture of Edwin Hubble and some spectacular pictures o (presumably) the Andromeda galaxy. The Hubble telescope and its contributions were also discussed. He must have had a briliant mind. I like your site.

    Like

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